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首届国际博物馆馆长论坛特别展 借古开今——江苏省美术馆藏明清绘画展

  

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  首届国际博物馆馆长论坛特别展

  借古开今——江苏省美术馆藏明清绘画展

  Special Exhibition for the First International Museum Directors’ Forum 

  Inheritance & Innovation

  ——Collection of Paintings from Ming to Qing Dynasties at Jiangsu Art Museum

   

  主办单位:江苏省美术馆

  展览时间:2018.5.22-6.10

  Sponsor:Jiangsu Provincial Art Gallery

  Dates of Exihibit:May 22 to June 10,2018

 

  作为人类的理念与情感诉诸于视觉表达的形式,艺术给人以知觉的延伸和审美的享受,其精神价值为社会所共飨。因此,美术馆的藏品不仅属于其自身,更是整个社会共同的瑰宝和财富,不论美术馆的未来发展如何递进,对藏品的研究和展示都是极为重要的。江苏省美术馆在首届国际博物馆馆长论坛之际特别推出馆藏明清绘画展,旨在通过此次展览对明清绘画精品的梳理和研究,呈现中国古代传统绘画的精神与意涵。

  明清之际江南地区人文荟萃、经济富庶,是文化艺术的重镇。许多画家文人在此栖居云集,创作和购藏活动鼎盛,因此构成了中国古代绘画高度繁荣的时期,而他们的诗性与画意,历经数百年的笔墨浸润,也给江苏留下了丰厚的文化遗产。“借古以开今”为石涛所言,在宋元以来的传统涵养之下,明清绘画习古人的传统法则,而跳出古人窠臼,自成一家。明中期以前宫廷绘画继承了两宋院体而重新昌盛,而吴门画派则发展了元代文人画传统,注重笔墨表现,追求平淡自然的意境与格调,自董其昌提出“南北宗论”以后,文人画逐渐以其意气、学养、品格逐渐成为当时画坛之主流,至“四王”一脉不断得到发展和延续。及至清代,随着市民阶层的壮大和西洋画法的传入,绘画题材和风格既在继承传统的基础上有所变化和发展,同时也开拓创新出面貌更为多样的画法形式,逐渐形成雅俗共赏、中西交融的趣味和格局。 

  山水画方面,明清诸家追慕古人,融合各家,稍变其法。展览中的山水画名家于丘壑、笔墨、意境各有所成,或重笔墨传承,亦不乏自出机杼者;或重抒写性灵,丘壑独运,而独标一格者。此次展览涵盖了馆藏明代吴门画派之沈周、华亭派之宋旭、云间派之沈士充、金陵八家之龚贤、“四王”及其承续者、海上画派之蒲华、吴石仙等诸家精品,呈现出明清山水画的大体格局以及承传有序的发展脉络。而在人物画和花鸟画方面,则包括有晚明丁云鹏、清初谢彬、金陵八家之吴宏、扬州画派之边寿民、李鱓、黄慎、郑燮、李方膺,海上画派之王素、任熊、虚谷、赵之谦、蒲华、沙馥、钱慧安、任薰、任颐、吴昌硕等。明清两代的花鸟画兼工带写,尤其将写意花鸟画的发展推向了一个新的高峰;人物画则因受到西方绘画的影响,在历代人物画的格局发展以来形成突破,呈现出更为多样化的发展面貌。 

  明清绘画上承宋元,一方面在笔墨经营和意趣上不断深入耕耘,另一方面在表现形式和题材上不断探索,为清以后的绘画更丰富的发展方向提供了基础和养分,其中所涵盖和积淀的写意精神、金石韵味,以及所吸收的民间艺术元素等无一不灌注了创作主体的情感与性灵。这种追求主体意识和多元审美的趋向,在明清达到了高峰,及至今日仍有滋养艺术和文化的重要意义

  江苏省美术馆通过推动藏品的研究和展示,将其放置在时代背景和连贯的中国绘画发展史中整体考察,不仅力图印证明清绘画不断演化创新的风格特征,彰显出传承有序的历史轨迹,同时更期望以其呈现出中国传统文化的悠久历史以及时至今日仍在勃发的强大生命力,带给不同国界的观众以共性的精神享受和文化熏陶

  江苏省美术馆馆长

 

  Art, the visual expression of the conception and emotion of human beings, impresses us with extension of perception and enjoyment of aesthetics. Its spiritual value is shared by the society. As a result, the museum's collection extends from the belonging of museum itself to common treasure and wealth of the entire society. Regardless of the future development of museum, the research and display of the collection is extremely important. The Jiangsu Art Museum launched the Exhibition for the Collection of Paintings of the Ming and Qing Dynasties on the occasion of the first International Museum Directors' Forum for the purpose to present the spirit and connotation of ancient Chinese traditional paintings by sorting out and researching the fine paintings of the Ming and Qing Dynasties,. 

  In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Jiangnan region was a place of strategic importance for cultural art with its well-developed culture and economy. It attracted many painters and literati to gather and inhabit here, in result of a period of highly prosperous Chinese ancient paintings with prosperous creation, purchase and collection. Their poetry and paintings, after centuries of cultural deposit, left a great cultural legacy for Jiangsu. As Shi Tao once said, “innovation developed based on past accumulation”. Influenced by the traditional cultivation of the Song and Yuan Dynasties, the painting of Ming and Qing Dynasties followed the ancient principles and initiated a new school in spite of the old styles. Before the mid-Ming dynasty, court paintings inherited the academic painting school of Song dynasties and rejuvenated, while the Wumen Painting School developed the literary traditions of the Yuan dynasty, highlighting ink performance and pursuing the plain and natural artistic atmosphere and style. After Dong Qichang proposed the “South-North School”, the literati painting gradually became the mainstream of the painting circle with its manner, cultivation and character. It had been developed consistently until the generation of "four Wangs". In the Qing dynasty, with the growth of the citizen class and the introduction of western painting techniques, the themes and styles of paintings not only changed and developed on the basis of the inherited traditions, but also innovated various forms of painting techniques so as to integrate Chinese and Western cultures and refined and popular tastes.

  As for landscape painting, the painters in the Ming and Qing dynasties followed the ancients and integrated various schools with slight changes in the techniques. The famous landscape artists in the exhibition made accomplishments in gully, inks and artistic conception. They either inherited from the old painting techniques, or created new schools; or focused on natural disposition with unique features. This exhibition contains works of Shen Zhou of the Wumen School in the Ming dynasty, Song Xu of the Huating School, Shen Shichong of the Yunjian School, Gong Xian of the Eight Jinling Schools, the “Four Wangs” and their continuators as well as Puhua of the Shanghai Painting School, various masterpieces of Wu Shixian and some others. It presents the general pattern of the Ming and Qing landscape paintings and the development context of sequent inheritance. As for portrait paintings and flower and bird paintings, the painters include Ding Yunpeng in late Ming dynasty, Xie Bin in early Qing dynasty, Wu Hong from Jinling Eight Schools, Bian Shoumin, Li Shan, Huang Shen, Zheng Xie, Li Fangying of Yangzhou Painting School, and Wang Su, Ren Xiong, Xu Gu, Zhao Zhiqian, Pu Hua, Sha Fu, Qian Hui’an, Ren Xun, Ren Yi and Wu Changshuo of Shanghai Painting School. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, flower and bird painting features combination of fine brushwork and freehand brushwork, and in particular, the development of freehand flower and bird paintings was promoted to a new height; the portrait paintings, influenced by Western paintings, made breakthroughs based on the pattern development of ancient portrait paintings, presenting more diverse development forms. 

  Paintings in the Ming and Qing dynasties inherited from the Song and Yuan dynasties. On the one hand, they further developed the painting techniques and interest. On the other hand, they constantly explored the forms and subjects, providing the foundation and nutrients for various development tendency of painting after the Qing dynasty. The freehand spirits and valuable charms it contained and accumulated, the folk art elements it absorbed are all devoted with the emotion and soul of the creators. This trend of pursuing subject consciousness and diversified aesthetics reached its peak in the Ming and Qing dynasties and still possesses great significance for nourishing art and culture nowadays. 

  The Jiangsu Art Museum promotes the research and display of the collection and places them in the historical background and the sequent development history of Chinese painting. It not only seeks to prove the style characteristics of constant evolution and innovation of the painting in the Ming and Qing dynasty, but also shows the orderly historical path of sequent inherence. At the same time, it is also for the purpose to present the long history of traditional Chinese culture and the powerful vitality even today, and to provide the audience from different nations with a common spiritual enjoyment and cultural education. 

   Xu Huiquan

                      Director of Jiangsu Art Museum